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inicijal-3-naslovnica

ИНИЦИЈАЛ. ЧАСОПИС ЗА СРЕДЊОВЕКОВНЕ СТУДИЈЕ 3 (2015)
INITIAL. A REVIEW OF MEDIEVAL STUDIES 3 (2015) 


Предраг Коматина

Византолошки институт САНУ (Србија)

ПОЛИТИЧКИ ПОЛОЖАЈ КОНАВАЛА У IX И X ВЕКУ 

Predrag Komatina

The Institute for Byzantine Studies of the SASA (Serbia)

THE POLITICAL STATUS OF KANALI (KONAVLI) IN THE 9TH AND 10TH CENTURIES 

Page Range: 11–21

DOI: 10.29341/IN.03.0.011021

Abstract: In addition to the Serbs, Croats, Zachlumi, Terbouniotes, Diocletians and Arentani (Pagani), the works of Byzantine emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (913–959) De administrando imperio and Vita Basilii also mention among the independent South Slavic communities the Kanalites, inhabitants of Kanali (Konavli), a tiny maritime region between Ragusa and the Bay of Kotor. The emperor usually mentions them and treats them as equal to all the above-mentioned tribes. However, unlike all the other tribes, De administrando imperio has no separate chapter for them. Instead, Kanalites are mentioned in the chapter dedicated to the Terbouniotes, as connected to them. Since much of the other information concerning the Kanalites deals with events of the 9th century, it was assumed that the Kanalites existed as a separate South Slav entity during the 9th century, but that they had lost their independence and had become part of Terbounia by the time Porphyrogenitus wrote De administrando imperio. However, the so-called “List of addresses” to foreign rulers, composed at the court of Constantine VII and his son and co-emperor Romanus II in 946 and preserved in the Book of ceremonies (Chapter II, 48), contains an address to the “prince of Kanali”, which testifies that there was an independent principality of the Kanalites at the very time of the composition of De administrando imperio. When we analyse some of the information on the Kanalites in De administrando imperio in that light, we are drawn to the conclusion that for Porphyrogenitus the existence of the Kanalites was indeed a reality of his own time, and not just a memory of the past. Thus, it could be possible that the reference to the Kanalites in connection to events of the 9th century was actualy an anachronism, meaning that data provided by the emperor should be used only with great caution and after thorough analysis.

Keywords: Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus; Kanali (Konavli); Kanalites; Terbounia; Terbouniotes; Serbs; Early Middle Ages.


Александар Узелац

Историјски институт Београд (Србија)

КАМИЛЕ У СРПСКИМ СРЕДЊОВЕКОВНИМ ЗЕМЉАМА 

Aleksandar Uzelac

Institute of History Belgrade (Serbia)

CAMELS IN SERBIAN MEDIEVAL LANDS 

Page Range: 23–34

DOI: 10.29341/IN.03.0.023034

Abstract: nce of camels (Camelus sp.) in medieval Serbian lands, in the time preceding the Ottoman conquests. Camels were attested in larger numbers at the beginning of the fourteenth century. According to archbishop Danilo II, King Stephen Uroš II Milutin (1282–1321) donated herds of camels („чрѣди вель- бѹдь“) to the monastery of Treskavac, situated near Prilep. Тhe use of these animals in the region was inherited from Byzantium, where they had a certain role in regional economy, serving primarily for transport on longer distances. Danilo’s report reveals that he and his contemporaries were familiar with the Common-Slavic word for camels (forgotten in modern Serbian, but preserved in many other Slavic languages) and the same word, albeit in slightly different form is also attested in local toponymy, more precisely in the medieval name of the contemporary city of Kyustendil – Velbazhd („Вельблѹждь“). Another testimony of the presence of camels in medieval Serbia is demonstrated in the Life of St. Symeon, written by his son and successor Stephen the First- Crowned. During his meeting with Hungarian king Andrew II in 1214 or 1215, he received various animals as a gift, including aurochs and the Saracen cattle („срациньскыѥ скоты“), i.e. camels. The report shows that the ruler kept exotic animals near his court and that he possessed his own menagerie. At that time, camels were obviously very rare. The presence of camels in the Medieval Balkans was related to the Byzantine trade with the east, their occasional breeding, but also to the migrations of various nomadic Turkic groups from the Pontic steppes. Intriguing evidence of the latter is preserved in the eyewitness report of a pilgrimage, made by bishop Lietbert of Cambrai in 1054. When the pilgrims from Northern France encountered bands of Pechenegs in the Bulgarian desert (the region of modern Great Morava valley, integrated into the Serbian medieval state at the end of twelfth century), they were amazed to see the nomads, riding on horses, as well as on camels. Although no archaeological trace of these animals in Serbia during the Middle Ages has been found so far, on the basis of previously mentioned written reports and several visual representations, it is evident that they were not unknown, and – from the early fourteenth century onwards – not uncommon, at least in southern parts of the Medieval Serbian state, roughly corresponding to the territory of the modern Republic of Macedonia.

Keywords: camels (Camelus sp.); Medieval Serbia; Macedonia; Byzantium; Hungary; nomads; Pontic steppes; menageries; 11th–14th centuries.


Mihailo St. Popović

Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut für Mittelalterforschung, Abteilung Byzanzforschung (Österreich)

DIE TOPOGRAPHIE DER MITTELALTERLICHEN STADT SKOPJE ZWISCHEN BYZANTINISCHEM UND SERBISCHEM REICH (13.–14. JH.) 

Mihailo St. Popović

Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Medieval Research, Division of Byzantine Research (Austria)

TOPOGRAPHY OF THE MEDIEVAL CITY OF SKOPJE UNDER BYZANTINE AND SERBIAN RULE (13th–14th CENTURY) 

Page Range: 35–55

DOI: 10.29341/IN.03.0.035055

Abstract: During the 13th and 14th centuries, the city of Skopje, strategically placed in the valley of the river Vardar (Axios), along the route connecting the northern Balkans to the Aegean Sea, was contested by several empires of the time – Byzantine, Bulgarian, Serbian and Ottoman. Probably for that reason, historians who analyzed the information found in written sources about the city in that period have often been more interested in the macro-level of political events than in the micro-level of urban studies. The aim of the present paper is to illustrate how a rereading and reassessment of well-known and long since published Old Slavonic documents of Bulgarian and Serbian rulers from the 13th and 14th century opens new perspectives in historico-geographical research of the cityscape of Skopje and its surrounding area during a period of political changes in which it passed from the Byzantine Empire into the hands of the Serbian state ruled by King Stefan Uroš II Milutin.

Keywords: historical geography; Byzantine Macedonia; mediaeval Serbian state; Skopje; King Stefan Uroš II Milutin; microtoponymy; monuments.


Brian R. Price

Hawai’i Pacific University, Department of History, Honolulu (United States of America)

A PROPOSED METHODOLOGY FOR THE VALIDATION OF HISTORICAL EUROPEAN MARTIAL ARTS 

Брајан Р. Прајс

Хавајски Пацифички универзитет, Одсек за историју, Хонолулу (Сједињене Америчке Државе)

ПРЕДЛОГ МЕТОДОЛОГИЈЕ ЗА ВРЕДНОВАЊЕ ИСТОРИЈСКИХ ЕВРОПСКИХ БОРИЛАЧКИХ ВЕШТИНА 

Page Range: 57–70

DOI: 10.29341/IN.03.0.057070

Abstract: Proposes a three-part interdisciplinary validation for practical interpretations of medieval martial arts as recorded in surviving European fighting treatises or Fechtbücher from the thirteenth through the sixteenth centuries. Suggests that the three main levels of validation revolve around the linguistic, which is covered through the traditional publication/challenge peer review process; the physical, which requires a blended textual and kinesiological testing through presentations to other practitioners; and tactical, which, owing to the lack of surviving original sources in the written text or from other manuscripts for comparison, might be tested through competition to see which interpretations demonstrate superior martial superiority.

Keywords: Medieval; Fechtbuch; swordsmanship; personal defense; military training; martial arts; interdisciplinary; Fiore dei Liberi; Johannes Liechtenauer.


Éva B. Halász

HIM-MTA-SZTE-MOL Magyar Medievisztikai Kutatócsoport – Hungarian Medieval Studies Research Group, Budapest (Hungary)

THE CHANCELLERY AND THE DIPLOMATICS OF THE HUNGARIAN DUKES IN THE 14TH CENTURY 

Ева Б. Халас

Истраживачка група за мађарске средњовековне студије, Будимпешта (Мађарска)

КАНЦЕЛАРИЈА И ДИПЛОМАТИКА УГАРСКИХ ХЕРЦЕГА У ХIV ВЕКУ 

Page Range: 71–94

DOI: 10.29341/IN.03.0.071094

Abstract: The article deals with the diplomatics and the chancellery of the 14th century Hungarian princely dukes: duke Stephen (1349–1354), duchess Margaret (1354–1356) and duke Charles (1371–1372). Altogether, there are 77 known charters issued by these dukes. The paper analyses their external and internal characteristics and describes the seals of the dukes. In the last section, the author discusses the functioning and the staff of the dukes’ chancelleries.

Keywords: 14th century; Hungary; Slavonia; Croatia; duke; diplomatics; chancellery; duke’s chancellery.


Марија Васиљевић

стипендисткиња Министарска просвете, науке и технолошког развоја Републике Србије (Србија)

НАСТАНАК СРПСКИХ РОДОСЛОВА И ЛЕТОПИСА КАО ПОСЛЕДИЦА ПОЛИТИЧКИХ И ДРУШТВЕНИХ ПРОМЕНА 

Marija Vasiljević

Bursar of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Serbia)

THE EMERGENCE OF SERBIAN GENEALOGIES AND CHRONICLES AS A CONSEQUENCE OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CHANGES 

Page Range: 95–117

DOI: 10.29341/IN.03.0.095117

Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between the emergence of genealogies and chronicles and the specific social and political circumstances in which they originated. In that process, the ideology behind those texts is compared to the ideology of previous times, in search for the particular and specific history of medieval Serbian ideologies. Analysis of the hidden ideologies in these texts lead us to defining perceptual grids, which determine the nature of the writer’s perceptions and the manner in which he transmitted historical events. Understanding perceptual grids helps us to better determine the value of these sources for modern scholars. Research showed that former division of these sources, into genealogies, early chronicles and later chronicles, is not adequate. Therefore a new classification in accordance with the theory of genres and their evolution is proposed. The first group of sources may still be called genealogies, even though they are not just genealogies, but conflations between genres of hagiography and genealogy. The contents, typically hagiographic, are linked by the principle of hereditary succession into a chronological sequence. The older chronicles, are renamed to stemma-chronicles, another mixture of theoretically distinct genres. In stemma-chronicle content is also organized as a series of biographies in chronological sequence, connected by family affiliation. The difference between genealogies and stemma-chronicles is that in the former content is usually religiously oriented while in the later it is a balanced mix of historical accounts of secular and religious significance. It should be added, that in stemma-chronicles timelines are present, which is not the case with genealogies. The third group is named simple chronicles, instead of later chronicles, since it represent the genre in its pure form. Historical events are recorded by their date without connecting protagonists by affiliation. Apart from the theoretical redefinition of the sources, the paper offers a new time frame for their emergence. Bringing together historical circumstances, genre relations and their reciprocal influence and results of analysed contents it is argued that genealogies, stemma-chronicles and chronicles originated at or around the time of the battle of Marica River in 1371. Once again, the search for the past is shown to be guided by present necessities in turbulent and insecure times like those in the last quarter of the 14th century. In the end, the last and maybe the most important conclusion of this paper is the definition of two types of perceptual grids found in examined sources. The first is the political and ideological perceptual grid, which is present in genealogies and stemma-chronicles.

Keywords: Middle ages; Serbia; genealogies; annals; stemma-chronicles; perceptual grid.


Maria Chalkou

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Mathematics (Greece)

NUMBER THEORY IN BYZANTIUM ACCORDING TO CODEX VINDOBONENSIS PHIL. GR. 65: THE NUMBERS AND THE POSITIONAL NUMERAL SYSTEM 

Марија Халку

Национални и Каподистријски универзитет у Атини, Одсек за математику (Грчка)

ТЕОРИЈА БРОЈЕВА У ВИЗАНТИЈИ ПРЕМА CODEX VINDOBONENSIS PHIL. GR. 65: БРОЈЕВИ И НУМЕРИЧКИ ПОЗИЦИОНИ СИСТЕМ 

Page Range: 119–137

DOI: 10.29341/IN.03.0.119137

Abstract: In this article we describe elements from the branch of mathematics known as number theory presented in the Codex Vindobonensis Phil. Gr. 65, a 15th century Byzantine manuscript kept in the National Library of Austria in Vienna. This codex contains a comprehensive programme for teaching mathematics, addressed to an audience consisting of students probably of all the grades of what is today’s primary and secondary education, but also state functionaries, merchants, craftsmen of various specialities such as silversmiths and goldsmiths, builders, etc. Number theory and the positional numeral system are integrated in the respective chapters of the four operations and their checks in Codex 65.

Keywords: Codex Vindobonensis Phil. Gr. 65; number theory; Greek manuscripts; positional numeral system; Byzantine mathematics; Indian digits; digits in Byzantium; Greek numbers; zero.


Adrian Magina

Museum of the Highland Banat, Reşiţa (Romania)

PETER PETROVIĆ AND PROTESTANTISM. ASPECTS CONCERNING THE PATRONAGE OF THE REFORMATION DURING ITS EARLY PERIOD 

Адријан Мађина

Музеј Планинског Баната, Решица (Румунија)

ПЕТАР ПЕТРОВИЋ И ПРОТЕСТАНТИЗАМ. АСПЕКТИ ПОКРОВИТЕЉСТВА НАД РЕФОРМАЦИЈОМ У ЊЕНОМ РАНОМ РАЗДОБЉУ 

Page Range: 139–159

DOI: 10.29341/IN.03.0.139159

Abstract: The personality of Peter Petrović left an important mark in the political and religious history of the regions of the Hungarian kingdom lying east of the Tisza River during the first half of the 16th century, in the period before the area was to become the autonomous Principality of Transylvania. While his political importance is rather well known and presented in various historical works, Petrović’s activity in the religious sphere has been granted lesser attention in historiography. Through his religious policy, directed at dismantling the Roman Catholic Church and promoting increasingly more radical Reformist ideas, Peter Petrović distinguished himself as one of the most representative initiators and supporters of the early Reformation in Hungary.

Keywords: Peter Petrović; Transylvania; Reformation; Serbs; 16th century.


Victoria Legkikh

University of Vienna, Slavistic Institute (Austria)

AN UNKNOWN CREATION OF THE 16TH CENTURY HYMNOGRAPHER. MICHAEL THE MONK: A NEW VERSION OF THE SERVICE TO SS. BORIS AND GLEB 

Викторија Лехких

Универзитет у Бечу, Славистички институт (Аустрија)

НЕПОЗНАТО ДЕЛО ХИМНОГРАФА ИЗ ХVI ВЕКА. МОНАХ МИХАИЛО: НОВА ВЕРЗИЈА СЛУЖБЕ СВЕТИМА БОРИСУ И ГЉЕБУ 

Page Range: 161–182

DOI: 10.29341/IN.03.0.161182

Abstract: In a liturgical collection from the beginning of the 17th century, a new version of both services to SS. Boris and Gleb was found. In this version “non-corrected” and “corrected” hymns were combined with each other, and some hymns were corrected again. It contains, in addition, a new canon and cycles of stichera. The new canon in this service is signed as a creation of Michael the Monk. This signature is similar to that of a 16th century hymnographer called Michael, who mainly created princely services. His style was characterized by unlimited borrowings with minimal corrections. Textological analysis of these services and the service to St. Alexander Nevsky written by Michael the Monk shows them to be almost identical. The article analyses the creative style of the new service and tries to answer the question why was it necessary to correct the service to Holy Princes, when the widespread “exemplary” service attributed to Pachomius Logothete already existed.

Keywords: hymnography; manuscript; textology; service; 16th century; Pachomius Logothete; Michael the Monk / Hymnographer.


Драгић М. Живојиновић

Историјски институт Београд (Србија)

ХРИСОВУЉА БУГАРСКОГ ЦАРА ЈОВАНА АЛЕКСАНДРА МАНАСТИРУ ЗОГРАФУ (МАРТ 1342, ИНДИКТ X) 

Dragić M. Živojinović

Institute of History Belgrade (Serbia)

THE CHRYSOBULL OF THE BULGARIAN TSAR JOHN ALEXANDER FOR THE MONASTERY OF ZOGRAPHOU (MARCH 1342, INDICTION X) 

Page Range: 185–195

DOI: 10.29341/IN.03.0.185195

Abstract: The article contains the edition, translation, commentary and photograph of the chrysobull of Bulgarian ruler John Alexander (1331–1371) for the Athonite monastery of Zographou, dating from March 1342, indiction X, confirming to the Bulgarian convent the possession of the village of Chandax in the valley of the Lower Strymon. Watermills located in the settlement and its vicinity were to become objects of protracted disputes and litigations with the Chilandar monastery in the course of 14th century. The aforementioned village was, in fact, given to the Bulgarian monks by the chrysobull of Byzantine Emperor John V Palaeologus (1341–1391), issued in January of the same year, while John Alexander only explains in his document how he pleaded with the Emperor to endow his compatriots.

Keywords: monastery of Zographou; Tsar John Alexander; Emperor John V Palaeologus; chrysobull; golden seal; Chandax; Strymon river; year 1342; monastery of Chilandar; edition and commentary.


Срђан Рудић

Историјски институт Београд (Србија)

Јелена Тодоровић

Филозофски факултет Универзитета у Београду (Србија)

ПОВЕЉА УГАРСКОГ КРАЉА ЖИГМУНДА РЕСТОЈУ МИЛОХНИ (18. ЈАНУАР 1436. ГОДИНЕ) 

Srđan Rudić

Institute of History Belgrade (Serbia)

Jelena Todorović

Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade (Serbia)

THE CHARTER OF HUNGARIAN KING SIGISMUND ISSUED TO RESTOJE MILOHNA (18 ЈANUARY 1436) 

Page Range: 211–224

DOI: 10.29341/IN.03.0.211224

Abstract: The charter of King Sigismund for Restoje Milohna, issued on 18 January 1436, is one of the few surviving documents issued to members of the Bosnian nobility by the Hungarian kings. Information it provides contributes to a better understanding of the policy of Hungarian rulers towards Bosnia in the first three decades of the fifteenth century. At the same time, it reveals some unknown details about Restoje Milohna, emissary, chancellor and protovestiarius of Bosnian kings, his family and possessions. In the period from 1435 to 1436, the Bosnian King Tvrtko II, threatened by the Turks, rebellious nobles and rival claimant to the Bosnian throne Radivoje, fled to Hungary with a number of loyal nobles and court officials, including Restoje Milohna. In mid-January 1436, the Hungarian King issued a donation charter to Restoje Milohna for his loyalty to the Hungarian and Bosnian king, and participation in the conflict against the Turks and rebels. Restoje’s allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church and his support had certainly influenced the king’s decision. King Sigismund’s charter confirms Restoje’s right to Sberchyky fort, which was located somewhere in the territory of the Bosnian Kingdom. The text of the charter does not enable us to determine when and how Restoje Milohna came into possession of the fort but the form of expression suggests that it was not an inherited possession. In the same charter, the Hungarian King confirmed the rights that Restoje, his brother Medoje and cousin Nikola had over villages of Sobrystye, Buczmyryno, Saderdye and Sagoryczani in the district of Livno.

Keywords: Sigismund; Restoje Milohna; Livno; Tvrtko II; charters; Bosnia; Sberchyky; Sobrystye; Buczmyryno; Saderdye; Sagoryczani.


Александар Крстић

Историјски институт Београд (Србија)

ДВА НЕОБЈАВЉЕНА ЛАТИНСКА ПИСМА ДЕСПОТА СТЕФАНА ЛАЗАРЕВИЋА 

Aleksandar Krstić

Institute of History Belgrade (Serbia)

TWO UNPUBLISHED LATIN LETTERS OF DESPOT STEFAN LAZAREVIĆ 

Page Range: 197–209

DOI: 10.29341/IN.03.0.197209

Abstract: The paper presents the critical edition of two short, previously unpublished and in Serbian historiography unnoticed letters of Despot Stefan Lazarević (1389–1427). The documents are preserved in the National Archives of Hungary in Budapest (Magyar Nemzeti Levéltár Országos Levéltárа, Diplomatikai levéltár), shelfmarks DL 56516 and 56517. The letters were sent between 1412 and 1420/1421 to István Remetei and Benedek Döbröntei, representatives (comites) of the Serbian despot on his estates in Szatmár County in Hungary. The Serbian ruler received these estates from the Hungarian King Sigismund of Luxembourg in 1411. By the first letter, sent from Belgrade, Despot Stefan orders Remetei to organize the transportation of a craftsman, the bellfounder Hans “The German”, to his home. The despot’s second letter, dated in Batočina, contains the oldest known information about this settlement in the Morava valley in Serbia. By this letter, Despot Stefan orders Remetei and Döbröntei to conduct military preparations and to be ready to join him with their men when he summons them. This document confirms the testimony of other sources that Hungarian familiars were used by Despot Stefan for his needs in Serbia, primarily for wars against the Ottomans.

Keywords: Despot Stefan Lazarević; Belgrade; Batočina; Pomoravlje (The Morava valley); Szatmár (Satu Mare); Himfi Remetei István; Himfi Döbröntei Benedek.


Срђан Рудић

Историјски институт Београд (Србија)

Јелена Тодоровић

Филозофски факултет Универзитета у Београду (Србија)

ПОВЕЉА УГАРСКОГ КРАЉА ЖИГМУНДА РЕСТОЈУ МИЛОХНИ (18. ЈАНУАР 1436. ГОДИНЕ) 

Srđan Rudić

Institute of History Belgrade (Serbia)

Jelena Todorović

Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade (Serbia)

THE CHARTER OF HUNGARIAN KING SIGISMUND ISSUED TO RESTOJE MILOHNA (18 ЈANUARY 1436) 

Page Range: 211–224

DOI: 10.29341/IN.03.0.211224

Abstract: The charter of King Sigismund for Restoje Milohna, issued on 18 January 1436, is one of the few surviving documents issued to members of the Bosnian nobility by the Hungarian kings. Information it provides contributes to a better understanding of the policy of Hungarian rulers towards Bosnia in the first three decades of the fifteenth century. At the same time, it reveals some unknown details about Restoje Milohna, emissary, chancellor and protovestiarius of Bosnian kings, his family and possessions. In the period from 1435 to 1436, the Bosnian King Tvrtko II, threatened by the Turks, rebellious nobles and rival claimant to the Bosnian throne Radivoje, fled to Hungary with a number of loyal nobles and court officials, including Restoje Milohna. In mid-January 1436, the Hungarian King issued a donation charter to Restoje Milohna for his loyalty to the Hungarian and Bosnian king, and participation in the conflict against the Turks and rebels. Restoje’s allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church and his support had certainly influenced the king’s decision. King Sigismund’s charter confirms Restoje’s right to Sberchyky fort, which was located somewhere in the territory of the Bosnian Kingdom. The text of the charter does not enable us to determine when and how Restoje Milohna came into possession of the fort but the form of expression suggests that it was not an inherited possession. In the same charter, the Hungarian King confirmed the rights that Restoje, his brother Medoje and cousin Nikola had over villages of Sobrystye, Buczmyryno, Saderdye and Sagoryczani in the district of Livno.

Keywords: Sigismund; Restoje Milohna; Livno; Tvrtko II; charters; Bosnia; Sberchyky; Sobrystye; Buczmyryno; Saderdye; Sagoryczani.


Nada Zečević

Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Eastern Sarajevo, Department of History, Pale (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

THE ENDOWMENT LICENSE OF POPE SIXTUS IV TO LEONARDO III TOCCO (10 SEPTEMBER 1476): THE CHURCH OF ST. DEMETRIOS ON LEFKADA AND ITS PLACE IN THE PLANS OF THE ROMAN CURIA 

Нада Зечевић

Филозофски факултет Универзитета у Источном Сарајеву, Одсјек за историју, Пале (Босна и Херцеговина)

ЗАДУЖБИНАРСКА ДОЗВОЛА ПАПЕ СИКСТА IV ЛЕОНАРДУ III ТОКУ (10. СЕПТЕМБАР 1476): ЦРКВА СВ. ДИМИТРИЈА НА ЛЕФКАДИ И ЊЕНО МЕСТО У ПЛАНОВИМА РИМСКЕ КУРИЈЕ 

Page Range: 225–240

DOI: 10.29341/IN.03.0.225240

Abstract: The paper focuses on a license which Pope Sixtus IV granted to Leonardo III Tocco on 10 September 1476. This license allowed the Tocco lord to found a Catholic church dedicated to St. Demetrios on the Ionian island of Lefkada. The research shows that the immediate motives for this endowment reflected wider political interests of the pontifical Curia which regarded Leonardo as one of its allies in the Crusade planned against the Ottomans. The stability of Leonardo’s power was reinforced by the Curia’s ambitions to strengthen Catholicism in his domain. The licensing of Leonardo’s ipso iure patronage over the newly founded church, as well as the permission to dedicate the endowment to the popular Orthodox warrior-saint Demetrios, both appear in this document as distinctive methods of this papal policy. The paper also discusses the size of the church of St. Demetrios, its location, and chronology, as well as the paleo-diplomatic features of this pontifical license, providing also a transcription in which the document’s significant vocabulary follows diplomatic standards of reading.

Keywords: church of St. Demetrios on Lefkada; Leonardo III Tocco; church endowment; patronage; ius patronatus; late Crusades; Union; Pope Sixtus IV.


Прикази и критике 

Reviews 

Page Range: 243–279


Научни живот 

Scholarly Life 

Page Range: 283–297